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Paired Samples T-test Independent Samples T-test Multiple Regression One Way Analysis of Variance



This example is based on:
Stanovich, K. E., Cunningham, A. E., & Feeman, D. J. (1984). Intelligence, cognitive skills, and early reading progress. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(3), 278-301.

The study was conducted to investigate the predictive nature of several variables (phonological awareness, decoding speed, general intelligence, and listening/language comprehension) on end-of-the-year reading comprehension of elementary school students. Fifty-six first grade students were given nine measures, representing the variables listed above. Here is the breakdown of the variables and their respective measures:

Independent Variables:

1. Phonological awareness: measured by the strip initial consonant task and the phonological oddity task
2. Decoding Speed: measured by a pseudoword naming task and a word naming task
3. General Intelligence: measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RPM)
4. Language /Listening Comprehension: measured by listening comprehension task and cloze production task


Dependent Variable:

1. Reading Comprehension: measured by the Reading Survey Test of the Metropolitan Achievement Test.

The Multiple R2 for this study was .494. Using the data presented in Stanovich, Cunningham, & Feeman's study, we will perform a power analysis.

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