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This example is based on:

Ujiie, J., & Krashen S. D. (1996). Comic book reading, reading enjoyment, and pleasure reading among middle class and Chapter I middle school students. Reading Improvement, 33, 51-54.

The study was conducted to determine the extent to which comic book reading of seven-grade students varies with socio-economic status, by examining comic book reading in two middle schools of different socio-economic status. 302 seventh-grade students from a Chapter I middle school and 269 students at the same grade from a middle school of middle socio-economic status participated in the study, by filling out a questionnaire in comic book reading, book reading, amount of pleasure reading in general, and reading enjoyment.

The gender difference in frequency of comic book reading in each school was conducted. The following table displays the frequency of comic book reading for boys and girls in both schools.

How often do you read comics?



Chapter I
25% (35)
57% (81)
18% (25)
1% (2)
44% (71)
55% (88)
Middle Class      
19% (26)
64% (89)
17% (24)
5% (8)
50% (77)
44% (31)

Using the data presented in Ujiie & Krashen's study, we will perform a power analysis.

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